|HBT 302||Haematology I: Introduction|
|Blood cells and blood forming organs
Bone marrow structure and function
Haemoglobin: structure, function, synthesis and breakdown (haemolysis)
Physiological adaptation to anemia: role of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG).
Factors affecting oxygen dissociation curve.
Normal haematological values
Disparity in some blood counts in normal Nigerians and other black people in relation to Caucasians (whites) (total WBC count, relative neutropenia and eosinophilia).
Definitions and classification of anaemia I.
Polycythemia: definition (including by RBC mass). Primary and secondary.
Abnormal RBC morphology in anaemia.
Systematic plan for the diagnosis of anaemia.
Indication for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
Quality assurance in haematology
|HBT 427||General Haematology II: Anaemia|
|Definition and classification of anaemia II
Microcytic anaemia: Iron deficiency, lead poisoning, thalassemia and anaemia of chronic disorders.
· Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid deficiency, vitamin B12 (including Pernicious anaemia).
Anaemia due to bone marrow failure:
· Myelophthisic anaemia, Aplastic anaemia.
Haemolytic anaemia: due to haemoglobin disorders
· Sickle cell disorders, sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease; “balanced polymorphism and Sickle cell gene”. Other haemoglobin variants that coexist with sickle cell haemoglobin (Hb-C, Hb-D, Hb-E etc.
· Other rare abnormal haemoglobin: Unstable haemoglobinopathies: Methaemoglobinaemia and sulfhaemoglobinemia.
Haemolytic anaemia due to RBC enzyme deficiencies:
· Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency Protection of G6PD deficiency against malaria. Lyonization theory.
· Pyruvate kinase deficiency and other RBC enzyme deficiencies.
RBC membrane disorders
· Spherocytosis and elliptocytosis
Acquired haemolytic anaemia
· Immune haemolytic anaemia due to antibodies (idiopathic, Evans syndrome, cold agglutinin antibodies, paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria (PCH) and drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia. due to defects in RBC membrane (including hereditary).
· Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, prosthesis (cardiac) march haemoglobinuria.
· Haemolytic anaemia due to parasitic infections (malaria), bacterial pathogens etc
|HBT 517||Haematology: Blood Transfusion Medicine|
|Blood group systems: RBC antigens and antibodies
· ABO blood group system
· Rhesus blood group system
Blood donor selection and recruitment
· Types of blood donor
· Donor eligibility criteria
Blood bank serology
· Blood grouping: cells and serum grouping, methods of blood grouping
· Blood crossmatch
· Antibody screening test: Direct and indirect Coomb’s (antiglobulin) test
Blood transfusion and transfusion reactions including transfusion transmissible infections.
Blood and blood component therapy
· Preparation and indications for use
· Rationale blood use
Haemolytic disease of the newborn.
|HBT 527||White blood cell disorders|
|Benign disorders of WBC:
· Leukocytosis and leukemoid reaction: neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia (including tropical eosinophilia, hypereosinophilic syndrome
· Diagnostic approach to lymphadenopathy
· Infectious mononucleosis
· Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: HIV/AIDS
· Structure and function of spleen
· Disorders of the spleen: Hyposplenism, splenomegaly (including differentials of massive splenomegaly), hypersplenism.
o Tropical splenomegaly syndrome
Molecular basis of cancers
Diagnostic methods in haematology: Morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, fluorescent in-situ hybridization and molecular methods.
· acute leukaemia (myeloid and lymphoid): definition, epidemiology, aetiology, classification, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
· Chronic leukaemia: chronic lymphoid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia
o Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: aetiology, classification, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, staging, treatment and prognosis. Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides
o Hodgkins lymphoma: aetiology, histologic types, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, staging, treatment and prognosis.
· Myeloproliferative disorders: Polycythaemia rubra vera, essential thrombocythaemia, idiopathic myelofibrosis.
· Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)
· Plasma cells dyscrasia including multiple myeloma.
· Haemopoetic stem cell transplantation: introduction, types, conditioning, complications and management of HSCT
· Human leukocyte antigen (HLA).
|HBT 528||Bleeding disorders and Thrombosis|
Bleeding disorders due to platelets: qualitative and quantitative disorders
Thrombocytopenia: differentials, clinical features, investigation and treatment
Congenital and acquired defects of platelet function
Test for platelet function
Bleeding due to coagulation disorders: genetic (haemophilia, von Willebrand disease) and acquired disorders
Coagulation test: Prothrombin time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, Thrombin time
Defibrination syndrome: Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC)
Anticoagulant therapy: heparin, Coumarin, DOACS
Inhibitors and potentiators of anticoagulant
Monitoring of Warfarin therapy: International standardization index (ISI) and international normalized ratio (INR).
|HBT 518||Practical Haematology|
|Stains in haematology
Blood film preparation: principles and method of staining.
Identification of common haematologic disorders on peripheral blood films and bone marrow films.
Full blood count – PCV, WBC, platelets.
Serological tests – blood grouping and crossmatch, Coombs test
Coagulation test – prothrombin time, APTT and correction test; ISI and INR calculation and interpretation.