MBBS Curriculum

100 Level

Semester 1

Course No.Short Course DescriptionCreditsPre-Requisite
PBB 111Diversity of Plants3GCEO/L OR
AEB 111Introductory Zoology4WASC
CHEM111General Chemistry3 
CHEM113Organic Chemistry3 
PHY 109Practical Physics2 
PHY 111Mechanics, Thermal Physics and Properties of Matter3 
PHY 113 GST 111 GST 112Vibrations, waves and Optics Use of Einglish Language Phylosophy and Logic3 0 0 

Semester 2

Course No.Short Course DescriptionCreditsPre-Reqwsite
PBB 122Plant Form and Function3 
AEB 122Functional Zoology4 
CHEM 122General Chemistry II3 
CHEM 124Organic Chemistry II3 
PHY 109Practical Physics2 
‘PHY 124   GST121   GST 122 GST 123Electromagnetism and Modern Physics Peace studies and conflict resolution Nigerian People and Culture History and Phylosophy of Science4     0 0 0 

200 Level

Semester 1

Course No.Short Course DescriptionCreditsPre-requisite
ANT 210Gross Anatomy & Lower Extremities2Upper (i) GCE
ANT 211General Histology1A/Lor
ANT 215Practical Histology1(ii) Approved
ANT 216Practical Gross Antomy3B.Sc.
ANT 213Tutorials2(iii) 100 level
ANT 214General Embryolgy1courses in
PHS210General Physiology2Chemistry,
PHS211(Systemic Cardiovascular) Physiology I1Physics, Botany
PHS212Tutorials1& Zoology
PHS213Applied Physiology (Tutorials)1 
PHS214Practicals I2 
BCH217Biochemistry I4 
COH212Medical Sociology and Ecology1 
GS001Use of English Language0 
GS002Everyday Technology0 

Semester 2

Course No.CreditsShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
ANT 2202Gross Anatomy-Trunk 
ANT 2211Systemic Histology 
ANT 2232Tutorials 
ANT 2241Systemic Embrology 
ANT 2251Practical Histology 
ANT 2262Practical Gross Anatomy 
PHS2212Systemic Physiology II 
PHS2231Applied Physiology I 
PHS2242Physiology Practicals II 
PHS2251Endocrine Physiology 
BCH2274Biochemistry 11 
MEH2211Psychology in relation to Mental Health 
COH2221Demography and School Health 
GS0030Nigerian History & Culture 

300 Level

Semester 1

Course No.CreditShort Course Description                                Pre-requisite
ANT 3102Gross Anatomy – Head & Neck
INT 3111Systemic Histology
ANT 3131Tutorials
ANT 3141Systemic Ernbroyology
ANT 3151Neuroanatomy
ANT 3163Practical Gross Anatomy
ANT 3171Practical Neuroanatomy
ANT3183Practical Histology
PHS31O2Autononic &Neurophysiology
PHS3111Special Senses & Systemic Physiology III
PHS3131Applied Physiology!!
PHS3142Practicals HI
BCH3174Biochemistry III

Semester 2

Course No.CreditShort Course Description                        Pre-requisite
PCO32O2General Pharmacology 
PCO 3612Endocrine and Local Hormones Pharmacology 
MEH3212Psychology in relation to Mental Health 
MEH 3221Psychiatry I 
IDH3222Environmental Health, Nutrition, Health EducationInclude pre- requisite pass in
MAN 3263General PathologyAnatomy,
MMB3261Introduction Microbiology(Pathology)Physiology and
IDP 320 Introduction to Clinical MedicineBiochemistry

400 Level

Semester 1

Course No.CreditShort Course DescriptionPre-Requisite
PCO4213Systemic Pharmacology 
PCO4223Nervous System Pharmacology 
MMB410 Microbiology Pract. I 
MMB4112Microbiology Lect. I 
MAN 4152Systemic Pathology Practicals I 
MAN 4161Systemic Pathology Lectures I 
MED 4015Junior Medical Posting 
MED 4013lectures/Tutorials 
SUG 4115Junior Surgical Posting 
COH4122Epidemiology Principle and Applied 
MEH4111Psychiatry II 

Semester 2

Course No.CreditShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
MMB4201Microbiology Practicals II 
MMB4211Microbiology Lectures II 
CHP4251Chemical Pathology 
PCO4251Practicals Pharmacology 
MAN 4261Pathology Practicals II 
CHH4263Essentials of Child Health CareMED 401/402
CHH4275Clinical Postings in Child Health Care 
OBG42S5Junior Posting Obstetrics and GynaecologySug 411/412
HBT4271Haematology Lectures 

500 Level

Semester 1

Course NoCreditShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
MMB5111Microbiology Lectures III 
CHP5131Chemical Pathology Lectures II 
CHP5141Chemical Pathology Lectures I 
MAN 5161Systemic Pathology Lectures III 
HBT5171Haematology Lectures II 
HBT5181Haematology Practicals I 
ANA 5014Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Resuscitation 
ANA 5022Intensive Care and the Treatment of PainMED 401/402
MED 5032Primary Medical Care 
MED 5042Dermatology & VenereologySug 411/412
RAD 5052Principles & Practice of Radiology 
OFT 5062Diseases of Bones &Joints and related tissues 
OTP5072Effects and Management of Trauma 
OPH5082Disorders of the eye and vision 
ENT5092Diseases of and injuries to Ear, Nose & Throat 

Semester 2

Course NoCreditShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
MMB5201Microbiology Practicals III 
MMB5212Microbiology Lectures IV 
CHP5231Chemical Pathology Lectures III 
CHP5241Chemical Pathology Practicals II 
MAN 2521Systemic Pathology Practicals III 
MAN 5261Systemic Pathology Lectures IV & Forensic 
HBT5271Haematology Lectures III 
COH5226Urban and Rural Postings 
  Organization of Health Services, Primary 
  Health Care, Occupation Health                     MASN415,425
HBT5281Haematology Practical II 
DP 5304Posting to all four sub-divisions of Pathology                 MAN 516
MEH 5214Clinical Psychiatry Posting                              MEH 321,411,
IDP5501Clinical Electives                                             421

600 Level

Semester 1

Course NoCreditShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
CHH62110Sub-specialty Paediatrics & Advanced Approach to Clinical PaediatricsPass in MB BS Part II Pharmacology and
OBG62210Lectures, Tutorials, Dissertation, Project and Senior Posting in O&GMB BS Part III in Pathology, CHH 426,427 OBG 428,429

Semester 2

Course NoCreditShort Course DescriptionPre-requisite
MED 61110Lecturers, Tutorials and Senior Posting in MedicinePass in MB BS Part II Pharmacology and MB BS Part III in Pathology MED 401,402 SUG 411
SUG61210Lectures, Tutorials and Senior Posting in Surgery Including sub-specialities

Course Description

PBB 111: The Diversity of Organisms (3 credits, First Semester)

Use of the microscope. Generalized cell structure. Functions of cell organelles. Diversity on plant forms and habitats. Evolutionary survey of the main plant groups (bacteria, algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and anglosperms) with emphasis on their life cycles. (2 lectures, 1 practical/week).

PBB 122: Plant Form and Function (3 credits, Second Semester)

The general morphology, anatomy, histology and physiology of seed structure, dispersal and germination; development of primary and secondary plant body; water relations; photosynthesis, translocation and storage organs; respiration. (1 lecture, 1 practical/week).

AEB 112: Introduction to animal and Environmental Biology (4 credits, 1st Semester) Concept of the ecosystem. Food chains, webs, trophic relations and energy flow. Ecological niches. Biogeochemical cycles. Species diversity; estimation of population size, population structure and dynamics; population interactions (competition and succession). The physical environment; temperature; light under radiation, water, the atmosphere, topography, fire and soils. Interactions among organisms; social inter-actions, epiphytes; vines, antibiosis.

Nutrititive interactions – ingestion of other organisms, parasitism and symbiosis. The major habitats in West Africa. Genetic material (mitosis, meiosis). Gametogenesis. Mode of inheritance (monohybrid, dihybrid). Sex determination. Variation; genetic and non-genetic. Species formation. The fossil record and evolution. Brief treatment of the origin of man.

AEB 122: Functional Zoology (4 credits, Second Semester)

Embryology-gametogenesis, fertilization and cleavage as demonstrated by Amphioxus, Genetics: the cell and distribution of genetic material, mitosis, meiosis, meiosis inheritance, sex determination and sex linked inheritance. Histology: Cells, tissues, organ formation and main features. Physiology: functioning of mammalian skin, muscles/skeleton, alimentary system/nutritional requirements and deficiencies.

CHM 111: General Chemistry 1 (5 credits, 1st Semester)

  1. Relationship of chemistry to other sciences. Atoms, subatomic particles, isotopes, molecules. Avogadro’s number. The mole, Dalton’s theory, The laws of chemical combinations. Relative atomic masses. Nuclear binding energy, fission and fusion. Periodicity and atomic spectra. Chemical bonding. Electronegotiants. Ionic, covalcnt, metallic bonds. Saturation of valence. The concept of hybridization. Oxidation numbers. The states of matter. The gas laws, PVT relationships. The general gas equation. Liquids and solids. Lattice structures. Isomorphism. Giant molecules.
  2. Acids, bases and salts. Behaviour of electrolytes. Water. Colligative properties. Ostivald’s dilution law. Arhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis concepts and applications. Buffers, equilibria and equilibrium constants. Solubility products. Common ion effect.  Precipitation reactions. Chemistry of oxidation-reduction reactions.
  3. The periodic table. Hydrogen and hydrides. Chemistry of groups 0,1, II elements. Acid-base properties of oxides. Introduction to complex reactions.
  4. Quantitative and qualitative analyses. Theory of volumetric analysis. Operations and methods. Calculations. Mole, molarity, molality.

CHM 122: General Chemistry II (5 credits, 2nd Semester)

  1. 1. General procedure for the isolation and purification of organic compounds.

2. Determination of the structure of an organic compound

(i)         Elemental detection (C,H,N,S and the halogens)

(ii)        Determination of % composition

(iii)       Empirical and Molecular formula determination.

3. Structural formula (include a brief treatment of structural isomerism)

4. Bonding and Mechanism in organic chemistry.

(i)         Atomic and molecular orbitals

(ii)        Broad hybrid bond formation (8p,38p2Sp hybrid orbitals)

(iii)       Bond fission and bond formation-classification of reagents and reactions

(iv)       Factors which affect electron availability in a covalent bond:- inductive, mesomeric, hyperconjugative effects.

5. Functional group chemistry

B.      Non-Polar Functional Groups

(i)         Alkanes structure and nomenclature. Homologous senses Physical properties, substitution reactions in alkanes, including mechanism of substitution.

(ii)        Alkenes structure, nomenclature geometric isomerism. Physical properties. Reaction with H2,X2HX,H20. Oxidation and addition of trioxygen (ozone). Mechanism of addition and polymerization.

(iii)       Alkynes structure and nomenclature reactions: acidity, addition of H2,HnHX,H20. Oxidation. Uses of ethyne.

(iv)       Benzene as example of aromatic hydrocarbon. Structure including molecular orbital picture. Physical properties, addition and substitution reactions

(v)        Petroleum chemistry. Origin, importance, fractional distillation of crude oil. Some reaction in petroleum technology polymerization, cracking isomerization and cyclisation.

C.     Polar Functional Groups

(i)         Hydroxyl group – alcohols and phenols. Effect of Oh on physical properties. Hydrogen bonding. Acidity and reactions with metals and bases. Reactions with alkyl halides. Oxidation and dehydration. Industrial chemistry of methanol, ethanol and glycerol, the reactions of glycols and polyols, especially periodic acid oxidation.

(ii)        Carbonyl compounds. The structural effect on physical properties. Preparation from alcohols, Freidcl-Crafts acylation, Oxidation reactions with Tellcn’s reagent, Fehling’s and Benedict’s solution and HaOH/l2. Addition reactions and mechanisms for reactions with HCN5 NH, and NaHSO4 and alcohols. Carbamon reaction — aldol condensation leading to hydroxy aldehydes and ketones and unsaturated compounds. The uses of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and benzaldehyde.

(iii)       Monocarboxylic acids. Structure and physical properties. Acidity and resonance. Preparation from alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, Grignard reagents, and from hydrolysis of nitrites and carboxylic acid derivatives. Conversion to aldehydes. Brief treatment of acid anhydrides, hydrolysis and reduction with ester 1’A1H4 or NBH, amides.

(iv)       Fats and oils. Soaps and detergents, their mode of action, reaction of soaps with hard water and with mineral acids. Amines. Aromatic and aliphatic amines. Structure and physical properties. Basicity and salt formation. Alkylation. Reaction with acyl group and nitrous acid – the Hinsberg test.

CHM113: Organic Chemistry I (3 credits 1st Semester)

(a)     General Principles of Organic Chemistry

(ii)        Introduction: Definition of Organic Chemistry. Classification of Organic Compounds. Homologous series. Functional groups.

(iii)       General procedure for insolation and purification of organic compounds.

(iv)       Determination of structure of organic compounds. Elemental analysis, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, structural formula.

(v)        Isomerism. Structural and stereoisomerism.

(vi)       Electronic theory in organic chemistry. Atomic models, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals.

Hybridisation leading to formation of carbon, carbon single double and triple bonds. Hydrogen bonding electronegativity, di-pole moment, polarisation, bond energy, inductive and resonance effects. Hyper-conjugation. Bond length carboniumions and carbanions.

(b)     Non-Polar Functional Group Chemistry

(ii)        Alkanes. Structure and physical properties.

(iii)       Alkenes: structure and physical properties. Reactions: addition (of H2 X2 HX, H20 03 etc) oxidation polymerisation. Stereoisomerism – definition, geometrical and optical isomers. Condition for optical isomerism.

(iv)       Alkynes. Structure, acidity of acetylenic hydrogen. Reactions: addition of H2 X2HX,H2 etc. Test for alkynes.

(v)        Benzene. Structure and aromaticity of benzene. Introduction to electrophilic substitution reactions.

(c)     (i)         Nomenclature: Common (trivial) names. IUPAC names of classes of compounds.

(ii)        Introduction to petrochemistry. Origin of petroleum, importance, fractional distillation of crude oil, components properties and uses. Octane number. Cracking.

(iii)       Coal tar chemistry, origin, production, important components and uses.

(d)     Practical Organic Chemistry

(i)         Experiment in basic techniques in organic chemistry: Determination of melting point and boiling points, filtration, distillation, fractional distillation, recrystalisation; tests for functional groups; organic preparations.

CHM 124: Organic Chemistry II (3 credits) 2nd Semester

(a)     Polar Functional Group Chemistry

(i)         Hydroxyl group – alcohols and phenols. Classification. Acidity -comparision. Important methods of preparation. Reactions: with metals bases, alkyl) halides. Oxidation, dehydration. Tests for alchols and phenols. Importance,

(ii)        Carbonyl group – aldehydes and ketones structure. Physical properties. Important methods of preparation. Reactions: Tollen’s reagent, Fehling’s solution, Benedict’s solution, iodoform reactions; with HCNB NaHSO5: alcohols, including mechanisms, with ammonia, hydrazines and their derivatives, including mechanisms; aldol condensation. Tests for aldehydes and ketones, importance.

(iii)       Carboxylic group: monocarboxylic acids, structure. Physical properties. Acidity and resonance. Important methods of preparation; from alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, through Grignard’s reagent. Reaction with bases. Conversion to esters, aimdes, halides and anhydrides. Tests for carboxylic acids. Importance.

(iv)       Carboxylic acid derivatives. Anhydrides, acid halides, esters end amides. Change of reactivity when -OH of acid is replaced by -OCOR, -X-OR, -NRr Reactions with water, alcohols, ammonia and amines, LIA1H, NaBH,. Test for esters.

(v)        Amino group – Amines. Structure. Physical properties. Important methods of preparation. Reaction with acids, basicity and salt formation, Alkylation, acylation with nutrous acids. Hinsberg method of separation. Tests for amines. Importance,

(b)     Miscellaneous Topics

(i)         Fats and oils. Definition, importance. Saponification. Soaps and detergents. Mode of cleaning action. Reaction of soap with hard water, mineral acids. Drying oils, mode of action, use in paints and varnishes.

(ii)        Amino acids, Proteins. Definition, classification, essential amino acids, special properties and reactions, isoelectric points, tests. Importance.

(iii)       Carbohydrates. Definition, classifiction, importance, nomenclature, structure and reactions of glucose. Mutarotation tests.

(iv)       Natural Products. Main classes (other than lipids, carbohydrates and proteins); Steriods, terpenoids, alkaloids, prostaglansdins definition, important, examples.

PHY 109: Practical Physics (2 Credits)

Students are expected to carry out a minimum of 12 major experiments covering the main aspects of the courses taken in the year.

PHY 111: Mechanics, Thermal Physics & Properties of Matter (3 Credits)

Mechanics: Scalars and vectors; addition and resolution of vectors. Rectilinear motion and Newton’s laws of motion; inertial, mass and gravitational mass; free fall; projectile motion; deflecting forces and circular motion. Newton’s Law of gravitation; satellites, escape velocity. Gravitational potentials; potential well; special case of circular motion. Momentum and the conservation of momentum; work, power, energy; units; potential energy for a gravitational field and elastic bodies; kinetic energy; conservation of energy; energy stored in a rotating body. Kinetic energy in elastic and Inelastic collisions. Thermal Physics and Properties of Matter: temperature, heat, work; heat capacities; second law, Carnor cycle; thermodynamic and the ideal gas tempetature scale. Thermal conductivity; radiation: black body and energy spectrum, Stefan’s law. Kinetic model of a gas: Equation of State, concept of diffusion, mean free path, molecular speed, Avagadro’s number, behaviour of real gases. A model for a solid: interparticle forces in solids, liquids and gases; physical properties of solids. Crystalline Structure: close packing, orderly arrangements, elastic deformation of an ordered structure; interference patterns and crystals. Model for Matters: surface energy and surface tension, plastic deformation; thermal and electrical properties of metals.

PHY 113: Vibrations, Waves and Optics (3 Credits)

Periodic motion: Motion of an oscillator; velocity and acceleration of a sinusoidal oscillator, equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator: damped oscillations; forced oscillations; resonance; propagation of longitudinal and transverse vibrations. Wave Behaviour: reflection of waves, stationary waves, propagation of straight and circular pulses; fiberoptics, diffraction, refraction, dispersion, interference, coherence, polarization. Wave and Sound: vibrations of air columns and strings; Doppler effect. Wave and light: mirrors, lenses, formation of images. Thin lenses in contact, microscope, telescope; chromatic and spherical aberrations and their reduction. Dispersion by prims; relation between colour and wavelength; spectra.

PHY 124: Electromagnetism and Modern Physics (4 Credits)

Electric Field: strength, flux and the inverse square law; electrostatic force between two charged particles; flux model for the electric field. Energy stored in an electric field, electric potential due to dipole. Steady Direct Currents: simple circuits; potential difference, resistance, power electromotive force, Kirchhoff’s law; potential divider, slide wire potentiometer, bride circuits, combining resistances. Capacitors: capacitance, combination, dielectrics, energy stored, charging/discharging. Electromagnetic effects: electromagnetic forces, electric motors, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter, voltmeter, electromagnetic induction, dynamo. Alternating Currents: simple AC circuits transformers, motors and alternating currents. Magnetic Field: the field at the centre of a current-carrying flat coil, of a current carrying solenoid, outside a long solenoid: flux model and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic Induction: induction in a magnetic field; magnitude and direction of induced EMF; energy stored in a magnetic field, self-inductance. Electricity and Matter: current flow in an electrolyte, Millikan experiment; conduction of electricity through gases at low pressure, cathode rays, photoelectricity. Modern Physics (1 Credit): structure of atom -atomic theory, X-rays, Planck quantum theory; wave-particle nature of matter; scattering experiment of Geiger and Marsden, Rutherford atom model; Bohr’s atom model. Structure of nucleus. Composition of nucleus, artificial transmutation of an element, natural transmutation of an clement, discovery of neutron, particle emission, isotopes, u and A-particle emission; gamma radiation.

ANT 210, ANT 220, ANT 310: Gross Anatomy (2 Credits each)

Instructions in gross anatomy of the human body which is considered from a structural viewpoint with emphasis on its functional and topographical orientation and the significance of various organ systems. Pre-dissected cadavers, articulated and disarticulated skeletons, models and X-ray presentations are extensively utilised. Clinical application is made whenever possible.

ANT 210: Upper and Lower Extremities

ANT 220: Trunk

ANT 310: Head and Neck

ANT 216, ANT 226, ANT 216: Practical Gross Anatomy (2 Credits each)

These courses consist of organized dissections and topographical study of the upper and lower limbs (ANT 216), thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineum (ANT 226), and head and neck (ANT 316).

ANT 213, ANT 223, ANT 313: Tutorials in Anatomy (2 Credits)

These tutorials are based on the lectures, demonstrations and dissections of the different parts of the human body, and include embryology and histology.

ANT 211: General Histology (1 Credit)

The course on general histology is designed to provide the student with the knowledge of the use of the microscope, the microscope structure, including infrastructure of organ systems.

ANT 215 & ANT 225: Practical Histology (1 Credit each)

Organised practicals involving the use of the microscope to examine and study pre-pared microscope slide sections, supported by projected transparencies.

ANT 221: Systemic Histology (1 Credit)

The course on systemic histology correlates with the structure and function of normal cells, tissues and organs.

ANT 214 and 314: Systemic Embryology (2 Credits)

The fertilization of the sperm cell and ovum, embrogenesis and the development of the organ systems of the fetus. This course provides a logical basis for topographical studies in Gross Anatomy and an explanation of many congenital anomalies and a stepping stone for future studies in Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics.

ANT 315: Neuroanatomy (1 Credit)

The course provides an overview of the central nervous system with a correlation of the morphological and functional basis of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Morphology is used to provide a base upon which the functional aspects are emphasised. Special emphasis is placed upon function and functional inter-relationships covering the broad principles of organisation.

ANT 317: Practical Neuroanatomy (1 Credit)

The use of projected slides, demonstration of models, specially prepared histological slides, dissection of the human brain and the study of brain sections.

PHS 210: General Physiology (1 Credit)

Cell physiology, physiocochemical principles, body fluids and blood transport; control system. Introduction to ANS excitable and contractile cells.

PHS 211: (Systemic Cardiovascular) Physiology (1 Credit)

Cardiac muscle. Changes in one cardiac cycle. Cardiac myoelectrophysiology. Control of rate and output cardiac reflexes. Cardiac innervation. Blood pressure. Hemodynamics and microcirculation. Pulmonary, cerebral, coronary, splanchnic and muscle circulation.

PHS 212: Respiratory Physiology (1 Credit)

Respiratory dynamics and work. Lung volumes and capacitances. Oxygen dissociation curve. Transport of CO2. Regulation of respiration. Hypoxia and dyspnoea. Gas exchange. Ventilation. Perfusion.

PHS 213: Renal Physiology (1 Credit)

Filtration (GFR) – clearance tubular reabsorption. Countercurrent mechanism. Dilute and concentrated urine. Renal autoregulation (RBF). ECF regulation, acid-base balance, renin/angiotensin.

PHS 213: Tutorials (1 Credit)

PHS 214: Practical Physiology (2 Credits)

PHS 221: Alimentary Physiology (1 Credit)

Mastication, deglutition, salivation. Movements and emptying of stomach – vomiting. Movements of small and large intestines-defecation GIT juices in digestion. Bile and liver. General metabolism (basal metabolic rate).

PHS 222: Applied Physiology I (Temperature regulation & environmental physiology) (1 Credit)

Man in a hot and in a cold climate. Thermoregulation. High and low pressure physiology: Gaveity and acceleration. Ionizing radiations.

PHS 223: Endocrine Physiology and Reproduction (2 Credits)

Hypothalmic releasing factors. Anterior and posterior. Pituitary. Thyroid and Parathyroids. Adrenal cortex; pancreas. Male and female reproduction.

PHS 224: Tutorials (1 Credit) PHS 225: Practicals (2 Credits)

PHS 310: Autonomic & Neurophysiol-ogy (2 Credits)

Generalities – layout. Cholinergic mechanisms; adrenergic mechanisms; synaptic transmission.

Sensory receptors. Reflexes; myotatic reflex, tonus, postural reflexes. Organization of nervous system. Spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral cortex and localization of function. Sensory tracts, motor tracts (PS), EPS and basal ganglia. Thalamus and hypothalamus. Cerebellum. Reticular formation and limbic system. Alertness, sleep, memory and learning.

PHS 311: Special Senses (1 Credit)

The eye, the ear, chemical senses (taste, smell).

PHS 312: Tutorials (1 Credit)

PHS 313: Applied Physiology II (1 Credit)

Exercise physiology. Fligh altitude. Deep sea diving.

PHS 314: Practicals ( 2 Credits)

BCH 217: Biochemistry I (1st Semester, 4 Credits)

Importance of biochemistry to medicine – levels of medical care and biochemistry. Membrane and cell structure. Techniques used in biochemistry and medicine. Protein structure and function — primary, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins. Proteins as informational molecules, proteins in blood, digestion and absorption and transport of amino acids in the GIT, 3-dimensional structure of proteins, molecular basis of protein structure — structural proteins, etc. abnormal haemoglobins. Enzymes: protein nature of enzymes, location and function of enzymes, factors affecting enzyme action, co-factors, co-enzymes, etc. Activation of zymogens, blood clotting and enzymes. Enzymes in medicine. Metabolism – introduction to the study of intermediary metabolism. Interrelations in metabolism. Bioenergetics and the driving force in cellular reactions. Carbohydrate chemistry, digestion, absorption and metabolism.

BCH 218: Practical I for BCH 20 (1 Credit)

BCH 219: Tutorials (1 Credit)

BCH 227: Biochemistry II (4 Credits, 2nd Semester)

Lipid chemistry, digestion, absorption and metabolism including phospholipids, prostaglandins; lipidoses. Metabolism of amino acids; amino acid degradation and biosynthesis. Essential and non-essential amino acids. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids. Regulation of amino acid metabolism. Integration and convergence of metabolic pathways. Introductory molecular biology – nucleic acids – DNA, RNAs and elementary treatment of their structure. Biochemistry of heredity. Discover and properties of the genetic materials, DNA replication and cell division. The mechanism of DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotcs. DNA recombination and repair. The implication of these processes in medicine. Coding properties of DNA-RNA; mutagens and mutation. DNA transcription and the different RNA products of transcription. Mechanism of protein synthesis, control and regulation of protein synthesis, biosynthesis: (a) nucleic acids (b) carbohydrates (c) lipids (d) porphyrins. Nutritional biochemistry including vitamins and mineral metabolism. Biochemical basis of inherited disease, management. Tissue and organ biochemistry, e.g., blood as a tissue, etc.

BCH 228: Practicals II for BC 227 (1 Credit)

BCH 229: Tutorials (1 Credits)

BCH 317: Biochemistry III (4 Credits)

Biochemistry of hormones and hormonal actions to include actions of C-AMP, adrenaline, glucagon, insulin; diabetes. Chemistry of the immune system. Heam degradation, bile pigments, liver conjugation. Biochemical transformation of foreign substances, detoxification mechanisms. Erythrocyte metabolism; excitable mecitable membranes. Muscle and mechanism of muscle contraction, biochemistry of muscular dystrophy. Special aspects of cardiac muscle metabolism. Biochemistry of vision, vitamin. Biochemistry of environmental hazards, cancer biochemistry, bacterial biochemistry.

BCH 328: Practicals III for BCH 317 (1 Credit)

BCH 329: Tutorials (1 Credit)

MEH 221: Psychology in Relation to Mental Health (1 Credit)

MEH 321: Psychology in Relation to Mental Health (2 Credits)

MEH 411: Psychiatry I (1 Credit)

Clinical psychopathology, genetics, biochemistry and aetiology of psychiatry disorders.

MEH 421: Psychiatry II (1 Credit)

Clinical syndromes (including child and adolescent psychiatric problems, drug abuse, sexual and personality disorders) and treatment methods in psychiatry.

MEH 521: Clinical Psychiatry Posting (4 Credits)

(i) Clinical psychiatry I (ii) Clinical psychiatry II (iii) Clinical psychiatry III (iv) Administrative and Legal psychiatry and Community and Preventive psychiatry.


Duration of Pharmacology Course

This shall be three (3) semesters. The course shall commence at the 300 level at the beginning of the second semester, immediately after the Part I MBBS Examination and end towards the end of the 400 level year. Courses in clinical pharmacology (applied pharmacology) and therapeutics shall also be offered at the 500 level and 600 level to be followed by an Examination at the 600 level (final examinations).

Pre-requisite for the Course

  1. Successful completion of the course work for the Part I MBBS examination.
  2. Success/attempt at the Part I MBBS examination.

Format for Pharmacology Examina­tions

The major examination shall be at the end of the 3-semester course. This will be the Part II MBBS examination. The examina­tion will consist of:

  1. Two written papers
  2. An oral examination.

The subject of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics will be examined at the 600 level during the final examination in medi­cine. The medicine paper shall include defi­nite area of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics.

Distribution of Credit Load in Phar­macology

300 Level— 2nd Semester (4 Credits)

  1. General Pharmacology: PCO 320.
  2. Endocrine & Local Hormones Phar­
    macology: PCO 361       (2 Credits)

400 Level— 2nd Semester (6 Credits)

1.          Nevous System Pharmacology: PCO 422 (3 Credits)

2.          Toxicology: PCO 421 (3 Credits)

400Level — 2nd Semester (6 Credits)

  1. Chemotherapy: PCO 411 (3 Credits)
  2. Toxicology: PTX 411 (2 Credits)
  3. Practical: PCO 425(1 Credit) (3 hours a week/semester)

Syllabus: Course Content of Pharmacology

PCO 320: General Pharmacology (2 Credits)

History of pharmacology and its develop­ment. Introduction to pharmacokinetics; drug absorption and bioavailability. Drug metabolism; pharmacogenetics. Effects of disease on drug kinetics. Drug in pregnancy and the extreme age; pharmacodynamics; dose-response relationship; LD50 ED50 TD50. Therapeutic index; introduction of new drugs; clinical trials, adverse drug re­actions and adverse reaction surveillance.

PCO 361: Endocrine and Local Hormones Pharmacology (2 credits)

Endocrine system: anterior pituitary hor­mones; growth hormone; prolactin; gonadotropines; adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Posterior pituitary hormones. Syndrome of inappropriate secre­tion of ADH (SIADH): vasopressin; oxytocin; testes; testosterone and androgens; the ovary; oestrogens; progeesteione and progestogens; contraceptive agents; mineralocorticoids. Diabetes mellitus; insulin; oral hypoglycemic drugs; glucagon; thyroid gland. Anti-thyroid drugs; parathyroid hormone; vitamin D and calcium metabolism local hormones; inflammation and allergy; histamine and histamine antagonists, 5-HT and antagonist, histamine prostaglandins, peptides.

PCO 422: Nervous System Pharmacology (3 Credits)

Chemical transmission and the autonomic nervous system, Cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms; neuromuscular blocking drugs; miotics and mydriatcs; general and local anaesthetics; hypnotics and sedatives; CNS stimulants; anticonvulsants; antipsychotics; antidepressants; opiate analgesics; drug dependance and drug abuse. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory anaglsics.

PCO 421: Systemic Pharmacology (3 Credits)

Respiratory pharmacology. Drugs used in the treatment of asthma and cough. Oxygen and other therapeutic gases. Cardiovascular pharmacology. Anti-hypertensive agents; cardiac glycoisdes; antidysrhythmic drugs; cholestyramine and hypollpedemic drugs. Renal pharmacology. Diuretics, nephrogenic diabetes insipidis. GIT pharmacology. Haemopoetic pharmacology. Iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia; folic acid and vitamin B12; vitamins and other therapeutic nutritionalagents. Anti-coagulants, plasma volume expanders, antibronolytics and fibrinolytics.

PCO 441: Chemotherapy (3 Credits)

Chemotherapy of parasitic infections, antimalarials, antiamoebics, tricchomonocidals and giardiacidals. Trypanosomicidals and chemotherapy of leishmaniasis, pncumocytosis and balanti-diasis. Antihelmintics, antifilarials and schistosomicidals; antibiotics, and septics, antileprotis and tuberculosis drugs. Anti-fungal, and neoplastic and antiviral agents.

PCO 411: Toxicology (2 Credits)

Mechanisms of drug toxicity; management of acute drug poisoning; poisonous plants and animal products; air pollution, heavy metals and chelating agents. Food additives. Drug-drug interactions.

PCO 425: Practicals (1 Credit)

Pharmacological techniques for evaluating drug actions, in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Therapeutics applied to all disciplines of Medicine, namely, Radiodiagnosis, Anesdiesiology, Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mental Health, Community Health, Medicine and Surgery. Therapeutic applications to emergencies in the above disciplines will also be covered.

Chemical Pathology

CHP 434: Chemical Pathology I (1 Credit)

Introduction to chemical pathology. Renal hameostasis and function tests. Water and electrolyte metabolism. Acid-base metabolism. Introduction to inborn errors of I metabolism – amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and urea cycle. Porphyrias; haematological chemistry.

CHP 513: Chemical Pathology II (1 Credit)

Gastric function and malabsorption. Clinical enzymology. Liver function and jaundice. Proteins and paraprotcins. Chemical pathology of nutrition. Biochemistry of malignant disease.

CHP 514: Practicals I (1 Credit)

CHP 523: Chemicals Pathology III (1 Credit)

Carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes, lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemias. Introduction to clinical endocrinology. Pituitary. HPA — axis. Thyroid I. Gonads and obstetric endocrinology Calcium metabolism. Radiolsotopes in medicine. Metabolic response to stress and TPN. Introduction to clinical toxicology. Investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

CHP 524: Practicals II (1 Credit)


HBT 427: Haematology I (1 Credit)

Properties and disease of the red blood cell and blood-forming organs. General introduction. Normal values of some haematological tests in adult Nigerians. Low total white cell count and neutropenia in normal Nigerians and other black people in relation to Caucasians (whites). The normal high eosinophil count in normal Nigerians. Systematic plan for diagnosis of anaemias. Indication for bone marrow aspiration and bone macrocytic anaemias. Iron deficiency or lead poisoning. Lack of transferrin. Definition of thalassemias. Anaemia of chronic disorders. Megalo bias tic anaemias. Folk acid deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, including pernicious anaemia. Myeloplastic anaemias. Aplastic anaemia. Points of injury in aplastic anaemia and pure red cell appasia. Pure red cell aplasis. Abnormal haemoglobins. Sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Partial protection by sickle cell trait against falciparum malaria in children. Balanced polymorphism and the sickle gene. Other haemoglobins that sickle; HbC, HbD, HbSC. Other rare abnormal haemoglobins. Unstable haemoglobins. Met-haemoglobinaemia and sulf-haemoglobinaemia. Haemolytic anaemia due to RBC enzyme deficiencies. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Protection of G6PD deficiency against malaria. Lyon hypothesis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency and other RBC enzyme deficiencies, Immune haemolytic anaemia due to antibodies (idiopatheic), Evan’s syndrome, cold agglutinin antibodies, paroxysmal cold haemoglobincria (PCH), antibodies induced by drugs. Haemolytic anaemia due to defect in RBC memberane, hereditary spherocytosis, herediatary elliptocytosis (ovalocytosis). Burr cell anaemia, spur cell anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), haemolytic anaemia due to physical damage to red cells, including March haemoglobinuria. Haemolytic anaemia due to malaria black water fever, inherited protection against malaria by RBC genes. Effect of malaria on platelets and white cells. Tropical splenomegaly, other causes of splenomegaly. Hypersplenism. Physiological adaptation to anaemia. 2,3, DGP (2,3 diphosphoglycyerate). Factors affecting the oxygen dissociation curve. The polycythaemias. Myeloproliferative disorders—definition. Idiopathic myelofibrosis with extra-medullary haemopoesis (agnogenic myeloid metaphlasis). Secondary myelofibrosis.

HBT 517: Haematology II (Blood Groups, Blood Banking, Blood Transfusion and Transfusition Reactions) (1 Credit)

The topics include ABO red cell groups, blood grouping (typing) and crossmatch, the ABH antigens in disease, the I and II antigens and antibodies, the rhesus (Rh) system, direct and indirect Coomb’s (anti-globulin) test, other blood groups, including the significance of high percentage of Duffy-negative blood group in West Africans. Blood transfusion and transfusion reaction. Haemolytic disease of the new-born. Other topics include the paraproteinamias, multiple myeloma and related disease, including Waldern Strom’s macroglobulinemia. Leukopenia, leukemoid reactions— myeloid, lymphocytic eosinophilic, marked eosinophilia, tropical eosinophilia, hypereosinophilic syndromes. Diagnostic approach to lymphadenopathy, causes of lymphadenopa thy, investigation of lymphadenopathy, mycosis fungoides, infectious mononucleosis. Acute leukaemias, general consideration, pathogenesis, incidence, aetiology and classification. Acute leukaemias, cloroma. Chronic laukaemias, chronic granulocytic leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Burkitt’s lymphoma — African and America types. Role of Epstein-Barr virus and malaria in Burkitt’s lymphoma. Hodgkin’s disease.

HBT 518 Practical I (1 Credit)

HBT 527: Haematology III (Bleeding Disorders and Thrombosis) (1 Credit)

The topics include disorders of haemostasis to stop bleeding after injury to a blood vessel. Platelet adhession and aggregation. Bleeding disorders due to platelet. Thrombocytopenia including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Tests for platelet function. Acquired and congenital defects of platelet function inhibitors of platelet function. Coagulation disorders including the haemophilias and Von Willebrand disease, other coagulation defects. Coagulation tests including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time. Defibrination syndromes: dissemination intravascular coagulation (DIC) and primary (or pathological) fibrinolysis. Thrombosis and hypercoagubility. Anticoagulant therapy – heparin and oral anticoagulants. Inhibitors and potentiators of oral anti-coagulants.


MMB 321: Introductory Microbiology (1 Credit)

History, morphology, growth and nutrition, classification and identification of bacteria. Bacterial genetics, bacteriophages, virus, infection and resistance to infection, Sterilization and disinfection, antimicrobial agents. Introduction to parasites and fungi.

MMB 410: Practical I (1 Credit)

Morphology, colony characters, nutrient agar, blood agar, alpha haemolysis, beta haemolysis, biochemical tests — mannitol fermentation, sugar fermentation, coagulase test, catalase test. Gram staining technique.

MMB 411: Lectures I (2 Credits)

Systemic bacteriology. General properties and cultivation of bacteria. Staphylococci and streptococci, enterobacteriaceae 1 and II. Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Genus bacillus, bacillus anthracis, genus clostridk. Botulinum, tetanus, welchi bacillus. Acid fast bacilli, spirochacte: Treponema pallidum, leptospirae, genus neisseriae. Immunization. Superficial, subcutaneous and deep fungal infections.

MMB 420: Lectures II (1 Credit)

Bacittacin sensitivity, bile salt solubility, inulin fermentation, optochin sensitivity, India ink preparation of pneumococal Bacterial agglutination with antisera, Widal test, VDRL, haemagglutination, virus haemagglutionation.

MMB 421: Lectures II (1 Credit)

Picorna virus, poliomyelitis. Coxsackie A and B, ECHO. Orthomyxo viruses. Influenza, paramyxo viruses, measles, rhabdoviruses, rabies, herpes virus A and B, arboviruses A and B. rubella. Malarial parasites. Parasites, amoebic and bacterial dysentery. Schistomiasis, helminthic infestations. Other parasites.

MMB 511; Lectures III (1 Credit)

Hospital infection. Epidemic and endemic infections. Food poisoning. Urinary tract infections. Cerebrospinal fluid – meningitis. Diphtheria, tetanus, botulinum, diseases of the respiratory tract. Bacterial endocarditis.

MMB 520: Practical III (1 Credit)

Ova and cysts in stool examinations. Parasites in blood. Morphology of fungi, Charts and slides. Macrophage migration inhibition test, rosette formation.

MMB 521: Lecturers IV (2 Credits)

Antigens, antibodies, immune response. Antibody/antigen reactions. Abnormalities of antibody production. Immunity and infectious diseases. Tissue reactions due to humoral antibodies. Tissue reactions due to cell-mediated immune response. Vaccination immunology. Immunosuppressive agents. Transplantation immunology. T and B-lymphocytes. Immunodeficiency states.


ANA 501: Anaethesia, Analgesia and Resuscitation (4 Credits)

This course deals with the provision of analgesia /anaesthesia for surgical purpose. The lectures cover pre-operative care, peri- or intra-operative care and post-operative care. The lectures cover the following: applied anatomy and physiology with particular reference to the respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Also pharmacology of the relevant drugs. Physics — the storage of gases and the principles of anaesthetic machines and ventilators – drug interaction and the effect of various kinds of diseases on the response to anaesthisia. General anaesthesia and regional techniques. Two tutorials are given per week and the students are taken on pre-operative ward rounds two times a week. In addition, the students also spend a minimum of two to three hours every day in theatre and they should be available for emergency cases.

The third course is devoted to the principles of resuscitation or re-examination of patients. Eight lectures are given in this course and it covers the relevant areas of physiology and anatomy with greater emphasis on oxygen therapy, basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. Practicals are given with the use of models and film shows. In addition to the management of cardiac arrest, shock, the unconscious patient, the lectures also include some drug reactions and their management with particular reference to local anaesthetic toxicity. The resuscitation of near drowning patients are also taught and students are exposed to field exercises in the management of emergencies outside hospital surroundings. The course lasts for 2 weeks and during this time, the students in addition to the practical demonstrations continue their theatre sessions.

ANA 502: Intensive Care and the Treatment of Pain (2 Credits)

Principles of intensive care management of patients. Eight lectures are given covering the areas of the organization of intensive care units, respiratory failure, monitoring of patients, and the more common intensive care illnesses — tetanus, myasthenia gravis, infective polyneuritis, chronic bronchitis, etc. Lectures are also given on theories of pain sensations and the management of intractable pain. The students receive relevant tutorials and are made to see patients in the intensive care areas as part of their practical training.


RAD 505: Principles and Practice of Radiology (2 Credits)

General introduction to radiology, physical basis of diagnostic radiology, x-ray tube, image and films. Hazards of radiation. Radiological diagnosis in child and maternal care. Radiology of common medical and surgical conditions. Radiology posting.


OPH 508: Disorders of the Eye and Vision (2 Credits)


At the end of the course in Ophthalmology, the student should have acquired the knowledge, skill and ability that will enable him/her to:

1.         Assess and record the visual acuity of a co-operative patient.

2.         Examine a fundus with a view to distinguishing between a normal and a pathological optic disc.

3.         Recognise and describe the treatment of common ocular emergencies

Course Description: The clinical course is given in the fifth year.


Ocular anatomy, physiology and pathology: lids, orbit. Eyeball and extraocular muscles. The visual pathway and pupillary reflexes. Conjunctival, corneal, lens, uveal, retinal and optic nerve. Diseases: conjunctival and corneal diseases- conjuctivitis, ulcers, degenerations — pinguecula, pterygium. Lens – cataract. Uveal tract – uveitis. Optic nerve – neuritis – atrophy. Glaucoma: the painful eye, the red eye, the eye in diabetes mellitus, hypertension, myasthenia gravis, onchocetciasis, measles, sickle cell disease. Ocular trauma. Blindness – causation and prevention.


CHH 426: Essentials of Child Health Care (3 Credits)

Growth and development. Community aspects of child health. Basic perinatology. Principles of preventive paediatrics. Paediatric emergencies, accidents and poisoning. Haematology/oncology, infectious diseases, neurology and neuromuscular system, endocrinology and metabolism, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, gastroenterology, skeletal connective tissue, skin and allied diseases. Human genetics.

CHH 427: Clinical Exposure in Child Health Care (5 Credits)

Electives exist in the various paediatric sub-specialties for which we have experts. This is meant for students wishing to strengthen their grasp of the discipline of child health care. Perinatal and neonatal medicine; neurology; gastroenterology; haematology /oncology; clinical genetics; general paediatric practice and nutrition are areas in which elective courses are available in the department. Only one of  these disciplines may be chosen by the student. It will involve both laboratory and/or clinical investigations in the area of the student’s choice.

CHH 611: Sub-Specialty Paediatrics & Advanced Approach to Clinical Paediatrics (10 Credits)

Lectures and tutorials on selected topics in child health. More detailed and extensive coverage of specialized topics in neurology, ENT. Pulmonary paediatrics, cardiology, gastroenterology, nephrology, infectious diseases, endocrinology, metabolism and nutrition, neonatology, haematology/oncology and dermatology. Advanced approach to clinical paediatrics is essentially designed to broaden the scope and increase the depth of knowl care pro1blems will be emphasized with a view to 1providing the student with the skills that wi1ll enable him/her to practice child health care independently.


MED401: Junior Medical Posting (5 Credits)

Identification of normal physiological mechanisms in humans. Identification of abnormal physiological mechanisms in humans. Interpretation of (b) against (a) to diagnose disease.

MED 402: Lectures and Tutorial (3 Credits)

MED 403: Primary Medical Care (2 Credits)

Exposure to general practice clinic. Exposure to specialist practice outside the Teaching Hospital. Visit to leprosy settlement.

MED 504: Dermertology and Venereology (2 Credits)

Dermatology posting. Lectures.

Lectures, interpretation of symptoms and signs to diagnose disease. Investigation of patients to diagnose disease. General1 management techniques in diseases including therapeutics.


OBG 428: Junior Posting in Obstetrics & Gynaecology (5 Credits)

Lectures/tutorials; clinics; clinical demonstrations; teaching ward rounds; operating theatre (cold/emergencies); patient clerking/presentations.

OBG 429: Lectures & Tutorials (3 Credits)

OBG 612: Lectures, Tutorials, Dissertation, Project & Senior Posting in O & G (10 Credits)

Lectures/tutorials; labour ward round. Teachings. Deliveries/episiotomy. Repairs; patient clerking. Caesarean sections/others. Operative deliveries. Teaching ward rounds; dissertation/special project.


OTP 506: Diseases of Bones and Joints and Related Tissues (2 Credits)

Beside clinical tuition and demonstration of basic problems in orthopaedic practice, supplemented with lectures – congenital affections of bones and joints; inflammations of bones, joints and related tissues resulting from injury as well as from microbial infections; degenerative conditions affecting the locomotor system; neoplasms arising from and metastasizing to bones and tumourous conditions of the skeleton.

OTP 507: Effects and Management of Trauma (2 Credits)

The effects of injury to the human body; metabolic response to injury; fractures and their management; the organisation of an accident service and department, burns and their management. Each student is required to undertake rotational assignment to work in the accident and emergency unit, and have practice in the simple procedures of wound care, toilet and suture and the techniques of bandaging and application of plaster of Paris.


SUG 411: Junior Surgical Posting (5 Credits)

Survey of general surgery. Each student is required to clerk selected patients and is required to present them in out-patient clinics and in ward rounds, the emphasis being on accurate diagnosis and the principles of surgical management. It is mandatory to attend departmental seminars and weekly clinical meetings. Every student is exposed to each of the major sub-divisions of surgery-general, cardiothoracic, plastic, urology, paediatric.

SUG 412: Lectures and Tutorials in Surgery (3 Credits)

Lectures on selected surgical topics to include clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Tutorials are conducted regularly by academic staff and senior registrars with emphasis on those surgical topics that have not been covered by the lecturer.

ENT 509: Diseases of, and Injuries to, Ear, Nose and Throat (2 Credits)

Common diseases of the ear, nose and throat, their diagnosis and management; the management of injuries to ear, nose and throat; speech and hearing defects.

SUG 622: Senior Surgical Posting (10 Credits)

Senior posting in Surgery with revision of the principles of surgery as applicable to the major sub-divisions of gastroenterology, urology, surgical oncology, plastic, paediatric, neurosurgical and cardiothoracic surgery. Every student is required to participate actively in departmental clinical meetings and seminars.